Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) is transmitted person-to-person through the ingestion of fecal matter containing the virus. HAV can spread through food or water if proper hand hygiene is not used by food handlers, and through close contact, such as household or sexual contacts.
More Michigan residents are at risk of contracting hepatitis, particularly Hepatitis A, according to the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services which just released its annual Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Report on Hepatitis B and C.
Vaccines are available and residents are urged to get them to help protect against Hepatitis A and B.
The infection spreads differently. Type A generally spreads through more casual person-to-person contact or contaminated food or water. Type B is spread through contaminated blood. The most common, Type C, is also spread through blood and is associated with injected opioid use, which is growing to epidemic proportions in Michigan.
Viral hepatitis-related hospitalizations, liver cancer incidence, liver transplants, and viral hepatitis deaths have all increased over the last decade. These trends are largely driven by the impact of the chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. Unlike other forms of hepatitis, the risk for contracting Hepatitis A through casual contact is higher than other viral infections.
Improper hand-washing is one of the primary reasons.
Symptoms of hepatitis A infection include abdominal pain, a low-grade fever, nausea, fatigue and jaundice.
HAV is a vaccine-preventable disease and MDHHS encourages HAV
vaccination of at-risk individuals, particularly in light of the recent HAV outbreak in Southeast Michigan. From August 2016 through Aug. 1, 2017, there have been 223 reported cases in Detroit, Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne Counties.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a pathogen transmitted person-to-person via contaminated blood. In 2016, 1,284 new HBV diagnoses were reported in Michigan. As HBV is also vaccine-preventable, incidence has declined in recent years, largely due to increased HBV vaccination coverage. However, there remains a significant burden of HBV in developing countries and immigrant populations. Though they make up only 3 percent of the Michigan population, Asians represent nearly 20 percent of the new HBV diagnoses reported in 2016.
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is also a blood-borne pathogen, but there is no vaccine for HCV. In 2016, 11,883 new HCV infections were reported, making it one of the most common reportable diseases in Michigan. During the same year, 2,060 of those new HCV infections occurred in persons 18-29 years old, compared to just 78 diagnoses in this age group in 2001. The epidemic of HCV in the young adult population is linked to the growing opioid crisis. History of injecting drugs, the primary risk factor for HCV transmission, was reported by 84 percent of those new HCV diagnoses. Statewide increases in HCV correlate to a rise in heroin overdose deaths and heroin substance abuse treatment admissions over this same time frame. Battling the opioid epidemic continues to be a major focus of Michigan’s Opioid Taskforce
and Stop Overdose Campaign.
HCV treatments, which can cure over 90 percent of persons with HCV, are effective in reducing the risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer. Unfortunately, many patients have not been treated and there remains a significant proportion of undiagnosed HCV infection across the state.
Surveillance for viral hepatitis infections is important for identifying trends in rates of infection, characterizing at-risk groups, evaluating prevention programs, and identifying outbreaks.
For more information about viral hepatitis, visit www.michigan.gov/hepatit
is or www.cdc.gov/hepatitis. Additional viral hepatitis statistics can be found in MDHHS’s Annual Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Report.
For important information about immunizations, visit Michigan’s I Vaccinate Campaign.